The retina is the innermost, thin layer of nerve cells that covers the back of the eye. The retina's role is to convert light into neural impulses and convey them to your brain for visual recognition. The retina is a crucial tissue, and retinal abnormalities can lead to impaired vision and even blindness if not treated promptly. Retina treatment is a surgical procedure that helps to correct vision problems such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia.
What are the Common Retinal Disorders
Diabetic eyes: Damage to the blood vessels in the tissue at the back of the eye causes diabetic retinopathy (retina). The risk factor is poorly regulated blood sugar, and symptoms include floaters, blurriness, dark patches of vision, and color blindness.
Lattice Degeneration in high myopic eyes: Lattice degeneration is a kind of peripheral retinal degeneration that causes localized retinal thinning, overlaying vitreous liquefaction, and marginal vitreoretinal adhesion. The frequency of lattice degeneration in myopic eyes is 33 percent higher than in the general population (approximately 6-10 percent); this also increases the risk of retinal detachment in myopes.
Retinal Vein Occlusion: Retinal vein occlusion obstructs the tiny veins transporting blood away from the retina. Retinal vein occlusion is most typically caused by the hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and creating a blood clot.
Age-related macular degeneration: Age-related macular degeneration occurs when the small portion in the center of your retina, called the macula, wears down with time. It is the major cause of permanent vision loss in people above 60.
Retinal detachment: Retinal detachment occurs when the retinal cells get detached from the layer of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients. The longer you wait to treat a retinal detachment, the higher the chance of irreversible vision loss in the afflicted eye.
Treatments for Retinal Disorder
A laser is an instrument that produces pure and high-intensity beams of light energy. The laser light can be focused onto the retina, selectively treating the desired area while leaving the surrounding tissues untouched. It is used for various conditions like diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, retinal breaks or small detachments, and central serous chorioretinopathy, to name a few.
A Multispot photo coagulator is a kind of laser that delivers multiple burns in a rapid predetermined sequence in the form of a pattern array produced by a scanner. This therapy aims to optimize the therapeutic effect with minimal damage to the retinal tissue. The patient is relatively more comfortable with this type of laser, as it reduces scarring and inflammation and is less painful.
There are virtually no restrictions following retinal laser therapy, and you should be able to resume your normal activities and work schedule the following day.
Intravitreal drug delivery is a treatment method for many retinal diseases, including AMD, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Retinal Vein Occlusions.
What are the causes of Retinal Surgeries?
The most common indications for a vitrectomy include:
- Diabetic vitreous haemorrhage: Bleeding in the vitreous cavity due to diabetes is called vitreous hemorrhage. Vitrectomy operation inside the retina can remove the vitreous, which reduces the chances of further bleeding.
- Retinal Detachment: Cryotherapy or laser treatment can repair a simple tear. Other methods like pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckle, and vitrectomy are used for severe tears.
- Epiretinal membrane: Vitrectomy surgery is painless and safe for the epiretinal membrane. The recovery time is quite short, and most patients see an improvement within two weeks of surgery as the redness around the eye goes away.
- Macular hole: It's a small break in the macula which can seal itself most of the time, but surgery may require to improve the vision. During its vitrectomy, the vitreous gel is replaced with a bubble containing air and gas.
- Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: is characterized by the development and contraction of cellular membranes within the vitreous cavity and on both sides of the retinal surface, as well as intraretinal fibrosis. It can also cause the failure of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment healing. While some cases can be managed with a scleral buckle without vitrectomy, most require vitrectomy and membrane peeling.
- Endophthalmitis: is a rare case where severe inflammation is caused in the eye due to an infection contracted during surgery. It may require a vitrectomy for treatment.
Intraocular foreign body removal: If any foreign body, such as bacteria or fungus, penetrates your eyes, retinal surgery is required to remove it.
Retrieval of lens nucleus following complicated cataract surgery: Retinal surgery is used to manage nucleus loss after cataract surgery and helps retrieve the lens.
Types of Lasers for Retinal Treatment
According to their spectral wavelength, two primary lasers are used to treat retinal diseases: green and yellow. ARGON GREEN LASER is the most often utilized of the two lasers. The frequency of this laser is 532nm. Other retinal lasers include diode lasers, multicolor lasers, Krypton lasers, Yellow micropulse lasers, etc.
- For Green Laser
- Retinal lasers are usually done in the Out Patient Department (OPD)
- No admission is needed
- You can walk out of the clinic almost immediately after the procedure
A drop of an anesthetic solution may be instilled in your eye before the procedure to anesthetize (numb) the cornea, after which a focusing lens is placed over the eye. Then, the doctor treats the affected area with green laser light, and the focusing lens is removed. Post Procedure Care for Green Laser:
- No repairing is required as there won't be any cut or wound in your eye after the laser therapy.
- You can immediately wash their face/eyes, and there are no post-procedure restrictions.
- We may/may not start eye drops depending upon the LASER indication.
Retina Laser Can Successfully Treat:
- Diabetic Retinopathy: In the later phases of diabetic retinopathy, laser therapy is utilized to repair new blood vessels in the rear of your eyes. Treatment can help stabilize the changes in your eyes caused by diabetes and prevent your vision from deteriorating, but it will not typically enhance your eyesight.
- Retinal Tears: The surgeon sends a laser beam into your eye through the pupil. The laser creates scarring around the retinal tear, which "welds" the retina to the underlying tissue.
- Weak Retinal Areas Before LASIK Surgery: Retina is at high risk in eyes with high myopia before LASIK surgery. That's why it is necessary to treat the weak areas of the retina with a laser before the LASIK procedure.
- Vascular Occlusions: Focal laser is the primary treatment for vascular occlusion.
Our Retina Specialists are skilled in conducting all such retinal surgeries, and our clinic is equipped with the latest Green Laser 532 nm ophthalmic equipment to assist them. So contact us today to schedule an appointment if you are looking for effective retinal disorders treatment at Hyderabad and Ananthapur.
When is Retina Treatment Appropriate?
Retina treatment and surgery may be appropriate for certain individuals in certain situations. For example, surgery may be the best option if a person's vision is so severely impaired that they cannot normally see without corrective lenses or if their retinas are deteriorating rapidly due to age. In some cases, people diagnosed with macular degeneration may decide to have laser treatment to help preserve their vision.